International

What’s the difference between being a resident and a citizen in Sweden?

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In order to move to Sweden in the first place, you'll need right of residence. This applies automatically to Nordic citizens and to EU citizens who are employed, self-employed, a student or have sufficient means to support themselves, while EU citizens who don't fall into that category but are moving to Sweden to join a Swedish partner or family member can apply for right of residence.

Non-EU citizens must apply for a residence permit, either as a worker, a student, for family reunification, or as an asylum seeker. Initially, these are temporary. Temporary residence means your right to live and work or study in Sweden is time-limited and subject to certain conditions. As a resident, you'll get a personal identity number or personnummer which gives you access to many services such as subsidised healthcare.

But after living in Sweden long term, you may become eligible for permanent residence and/or Swedish citizenship. So what benefits do you gain from these statuses, and what are the differences between the two?

LIFE IN SWEDEN GUIDES:

Photo: Lina Roos/imagebank.sweden.se

Permanent residency

A permanent residence permit (permanent uppehållstillstånd or PUT) makes your status in Sweden more secure. Permanent residence is granted to EU citizens after five years living in Sweden (even if some of that was spent unemployed), and you can apply to the Migration Agency for a certificate of permanent residence. Non-EU citizens who have lived in Sweden for five years with a residence permit and can prove they were capable of supporting themselves and their family during that time can also apply for a permanent residence permit.

Permanent residency comes with a few benefits, the most noteworthy being that you don't need to apply to renew your permit in order to continue living, studying, and/or working in Sweden. This means, for example, that it's easier to change jobs if you have a PUT, since holders of a temporary residence permit need to reapply for a work permit in order to change profession.

Students with a PUT are exempt from the international student fees that usually apply to non-EU/EEA citizens. Even students with a temporary residence permit for reasons other than studies are exempt from these fees.

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Photo: Ola Ericson/imagebank.sweden.se

Another benefit of permanent residency is that family members can apply to move to Sweden to join you under so-called family reunification laws, which is not the case if you are in Sweden with only a temporary residence permit.

However, the name might be misleading, since your right of residence can still be withdrawn.

The most likely reason for this to happen is if you leave Sweden. With a PUT, you may move abroad for up to two years, but if you want to live abroad for longer than this – or if you fail to inform the Migration Agency of your move, even if it's two years or less – your right of residence may be withdrawn.

Permanent residence permit holders can also face deportation from Sweden if they commit certain crimes; however, this punishment is only issued in the case of extremely serious crimes.

Citizenship

As mentioned above, citizenship is the only way to gain certain rights, and there are a few crucial extra benefits you get from citizenship compared to permanent residency, which make it well worth considering for those who plan to be in Sweden long-term.

The key thing is that Swedish citizens have the 'absolute right' to live and work in the country.


Photo: Alexander Hall/imagebank.sweden.se

You can vote in all elections in Sweden as a citizen, and you can join the Swedish police force and army or work as a judge if you wish.

You will also be entitled to a Swedish passport, and as a Swedish citizen you have increased rights of travel compared to many other countries. This includes the rights you gain as an EU citizen, Read More – Source

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